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Abstract: FR-PO497

Prevalence and Risk Factors for CKD in Adults of El Salvador

Session Information

Category: Chronic Kidney Disease (Non-Dialysis)

  • 304 CKD: Epidemiology, Outcomes - Non-Cardiovascular


  • Orantes, Carlos Manuel, National Institute of Health, San Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador
  • Herrera, Raúl, National Institute of Nephrology, La Habana, Cuba
  • Almaguer, Miguel M, Instituto de Nefrologia, La Habana, Cuba
  • Diaz, Moises Nahun, ISSS, San Salvador, El Salvador
  • Parada, Xavier F., Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • Gavarrete Escobar, Esmeralda Guadalupe, University of El Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador
  • Silva, Luis Carlos, National School of Public Health, Cuba, La Habana, Cuba

An increase in deaths due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been observed in Central America. Mortality is 17 times higher in Nicaragua and El Salvador than in Cuba. Noted, CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a major health problem in El Salvador


A cross-sectional analytical epidemiological study was conducted in a sample of 4,817 participants aged >20 years obtained from the national survey on non-communicable diseases to determine the prevalence and risk factors for CKD and CKDu. Stages of CKD (CKD-EPI equation) were estimated from serum creatinine and spot urine albumin. CKD-1 & 2 was confirmed at three months. Data analysis included descriptive, analytical, and bivariate measures


Risk factors: diabetes mellitus (DM) 12.5%; hypertension (HTN) 37%; family history of CKD 8.7%; family history of DM 21.8%, family history of HTN 40.3%; obesity 27.3%, dyslipidemia 27%; current smoker 7.8%; alcoholism 9.4%; agricultural occupation 31.2%; NSAIDs 3.8%; nephrotoxic plants 3.8%, direct exposure to agrochemicals 12.6%. CKD prevalence was 12.6 (11.0-14.4) (Figure 1), of this one-third was CKDu 30.5% (25.9-35.5). Associations found were (OR; 95%CI): Age >64 (17.3; 11.7-25.6), DM (3.6; 2.9-4.7), obesity (3.5; 2.0-6.0), HTN (3.5; 2.8-4.5), male (2.3; 1.8-2.9), rural residency (1.3; 1.0-1.8), dyslipidemia (1.3; 1.0-1.6). At least 5 years of: use of agrochemicals (2.5; 1.9-3.4), exposure to agrochemicals in residency & work (2.4; 1.7-3.4), any agricultural activity (2.0; 1.5-2.5), direct exposure to agrochemicals (1.8; 1.4-2.4), drinking river water (1.8; 1.4-2.3), storage of products and hardware for fumigation (1.5; 1.2-2.0)


Adults in El Salvador have a double burden of risk factors (traditional and non-traditional) that can act synergistically to cause CKD


  • Government Support - Non-U.S.