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Kidney Week

Abstract: SA-PO415

Usefulness of Repeated Measurement of Casual Urine Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio in Patients with CKD

Session Information

Category: Chronic Kidney Disease (Non-Dialysis)

  • 302 CKD: Estimating Equations, Incidence, Prevalence, Special Populations

Authors

  • Okuyama, Yuka, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
  • Uchida, Haruhito A., Okayama Univeristy, Okayama, Japan
  • Iwahori, Toshiyuki, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
  • Takeuchi, Hidemi, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
  • Otaka, Nozomu, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
  • Kitagawa, Masashi, Okayama University Graduate School, Okayama, Japan
  • Sugiyama, Hitoshi, Okayama University Graduate School, Okayama, Japan
  • Miura, Katsuyuki, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
  • Ueshima and EPOCH-JAPAN Group, Hirotsugu, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
  • Wada, Jun, Okayama Univeristy, Okayama, Japan
Background

Lowering sodium-to-potassium ratio has been reported to benefit people for hypertension prevention and control in epidemiological studies. Four to seven repeated measurements of casual urine sodium-to-potassium ratio is known to provide high correlation and good agreement quality with less bias to estimate 7-day 24-hour urinary Na/K ratio in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. However, little is known about urinary Na/K ratio in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship of the repeated measurement of casual and 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio in patients with CKD.

Methods

A total of 61 inpatients with CKD, 31 in stage 1-3 (eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73m2) and 30 in stage 4-5 (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2), aged 20 to 85 under low-sodium diet (NaCl 6 g/day) were recruited in Okayama University hospital. Na/K ratio in casual urine at 4 points/day (first void after rising, each urine after breakfast, lunch or dinner) for 2 days and 2-day 24-hr urine at the same day were measured. Correlation and the quality of agreement by Bland and Altman between casual urine and 24-hour urine samples were analyzed.

Results

Mean 24-hour Na and K excretion was lower in participants in stage 4-5 (Na: 87.5 mmol/24h, K: 18.8 mmol/24h) than in participants in stage 1-3 (Na: 99.0 mmol/24h, K: 26.1 mmol/24h), whereas mean 24-hour urine Na/K ratio was higher in participants in stage 4-5 (5.1) than in participants in stage 1-3 (4.1). Casual urine Na/K ratio was strongly correlated with 2-day 24-hour urinary Na/K ratio by sampling 2 casual urine specimens per day for 2 days in participants in stage 1-3 (r = 0.69-0.78), but not in stage 4-5 (r = 0.12-0.19). The bias for mean Na/K ratio between 2-day 24-hour urine and sampling 2 casual urine per day for 2 days in participants in stage 1-3 ranged from -0.86 to 0.16, and the quality of agreement for the mean of this casual urine sampling was similar to that of all 8 points of casual urine samples for estimating 2-day 24-hour values.

Conclusion

Repeated casual urine Na/K ratio measurement is useful to estimate 24-hour urine Na/K ratio in stage 1-3 CKD patients as well as normotensive and hypertensive people; however, not in stage 4-5 CKD patients.