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Abstract: TH-PO1053

Prevalence of Proteinuria, Glycosuria, and Hypertension in a Walk-In Clinic in Rural Tanzania

Session Information

Category: CKD (Non-Dialysis)

  • 1901 CKD (Non-Dialysis): Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Prevention


  • Ploth, David W., Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • Fonner, Virginia, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • Sweat, Michael D., Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • Mbwambo, Jessie K., Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) including chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the typically comorbid conditions of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and cardiovascular disease represent increasing public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries. The present studies were conducted to explore the hypothesis that there are previously underappreciated and interrelated epidemics of CKD, DM, and HTN in rural Tanzania.


We recently reported prevalence estimates for CKD(Stages III-V) of 12.4%; Stage I or II HTN of 19.9% and DM(HbA1c>6.5%) of 14.8% for a random sample of 712 residents in rural Tanzania. To assess HTN, DM, and CKD further, we obtained a single BP measurement and obtained random urine samples for dipstick measurement of glycosuria and proteinuria for individuals that voluntarily appeared at a walk-in clinic that was part of the overall study



Normal BP was reported for 33% (296/897) and prehypertension was reported for 35 % (317/897). Glycosuria and proteinuria were highly correlated (p<0.001, Chi-Square). Glycosuria but no proteinuria was observed in 1.5%(13/833) of the samples; proteinuria but no glycosuria was present in 4.6%(38/833); and both proteinuria and glycosuria were present in 1.6%(14/833). Increasing age but was associated with HTN or DM but gender not. HTN was associated with overweight/obese but DM was not. DM and HTN were associated with each other(p< 0.002, Chi-square).


In summary, although the data are undoubtedly biased by the methodology available to us, we observed high prevalence of HTN, glycosuria and proteinuria in a community walk-in clinic that are consistent with the high rates of CKD, HTN, and DM observed in our earlier study. It is imperative that additional studies be performed to carefully asses the prevalence of these non-communicative diseases and their causes so that effective prevention and treatment strategies can be directed at reducing of the risk of kidney disease, DM, HTN and the expected cardiovascular complications that will follow in rural Tanzania


  • Other NIH Support