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Kidney Week

Abstract: TH-PO016

U-Shape Association of Serum Albumin Level and AKI Risk in Hospitalized Patients

Session Information

Category: Acute Kidney Injury

  • 101 AKI: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Prevention

Authors

  • Cheungpasitporn, Wisit, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States
  • Thongprayoon, Charat, Bassett Medical Center, Cooperstown, New York, United States
  • Mao, Michael A., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • Sakhuja, Ankit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • Kashani, Kianoush, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
Background

While an association between hypoalbuminemia and increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) is well-established, the risk of AKI development and its severity among patients with elevated serum albumin is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of AKI in hospitalized patients stratified by various admission serum albumin levels.

Methods

This single-center retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All adult hospitalized patients who had admission albumin levels available between January 2009 and December 2013 were enrolled. Admission albumin was categorized based on its distribution into six groups (≤2.4, 2.5-2.9, 3.0-3.4, 3.5-3.9, 4.0-4.4, and ≥4.5 mg/dL). The primary outcome was the incidence of hospital-acquired AKI (HAKI). Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain the odds ratio of AKI for various admission albumin strata using the albumin 3.5 to 3.9 mg/dL (lowest incidence of AKI) as the reference group.

Results

Of the total 9,552 studied patients, HAKI occurred in 1,556 (16.3%) patients. The incidence of HAKI among patients with admission albumin ≤2.4, 2.5-2.9, 3.0-3.4, 3.5-3.9, 4.0-4.4, and ≥4.5 mg/dL was 18.3%, 14.3%, 15.5%, 14.2%, 16.7%, and 26.0%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, admission serum albumin levels ≤2.4 and ≥4.5 mg/dL were associated with an increased risk of HAKI with odds ratios of 1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.94) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.74-2.69), respectively. While stage 1 HAKI was significantly more frequent among patients with admission albumin ≥4.5 mg/dL (23.0% vs. 11.6%, P<0.001), incidence of stage 3 HAKI was higher in those with albumin ≤2.4 mg/dL (2.8% vs 0.3%, P<0.001).

Conclusion

Admission serum albumin levels ≤2.4 and ≥4.5 mg/dL were associated with an increased risk for HAKI. Patients with admission albumin ≥4.5 mg/dL had HAKI with a lower intensity when compared with those who had admission albumin levels ≤2.4 mg/dL.