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Kidney Week

Abstract: TH-PO427

Hyperkalemia and Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System Inhibitor (RAASi) Therapy in CKD: A General Practice-Based, Observational Study

Session Information

Category: Hypertension and CVD

  • 1401 Hypertension and CVD: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Prevention

Authors

  • Jun, Min, The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  • Jardine, Meg J., The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  • Perkovic, Vlado, The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  • Pilard, Quentin, The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  • Billot, Laurent, The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  • Rodgers, Anthony, The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  • Rogers, Kris, The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
  • Gallagher, Martin P., The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia
Background

Data on hyperkalemia frequency among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients receiving RAASis and its impact on subsequent RAASi treatment are limited. We sought to assess the incidence of clinically significant hyperkalemia in CKD patients who were prescribed a RAASi and the proportion of patients with RAASi medication change after experiencing incident hyperkalemia.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study (1 January 2013-30 June 2017) using Australian national general practice data from the NPS MedicineWise’s MedicineInsight program. The study included adults aged ≥18 years who received ≥1 RAASi prescription during the study period and had CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 ml/min/1.73m2). Study outcomes included incident clinically significant hyperkalemia (serum potassium >6 mmol/L or a record of hyperkalemia diagnosis) and among patients who experienced incident hyperkalemia, the proportion who had RAASi medication changes (cessation or dose reduction during the 210-day period after the incident hyperkalemia event).

Results

Among 20,184 CKD patients with a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 1,992 (9.9%) patients experienced an episode of hyperkalemia. The overall incidence rate was 3.1 (95% CI: 2.9-3.2) per 100 person-years. Rates progressively increased with worsening eGFR (e.g. 3.5-fold increase in patients with eGFR <15 vs. 45-59 ml/min/1.73m2). Among patients who experienced incident hyperkalemia, 47% had changes made to their RAASi treatment regimen following the first occurrence of hyperkalemia (discontinuation: 37% and dose reduction: 10%). In the full multivariable model, higher levels of serum potassium at the time of the hyperkalemia event was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of medication change (per 0.1 mmol/L increase: odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08).

Conclusion

In this analysis of adult RAASi users with CKD, hyperkalemia and subsequent RAASi treatment changes were common. Further assessment of strategies for hyperkalemia management and optimal RAASi use among people with CKD are warranted.

Funding

  • Other U.S. Government Support