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Abstract: TH-PO444

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Association with CKD in sub-Saharan Africa

Session Information

Category: Hypertension and CVD

  • 1401 Hypertension and CVD: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Prevention


  • Olanrewaju, Timothy Olusegun, University of Ilorin and University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Osafo, Charlotte, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
  • Mamven, Manmak, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
  • Ilori, Titilayo O., Emory University School of Medicine, Chandler, Arizona, United States
  • Raji, Yemi R., University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Arogundade, Fatiu Abiola, Obafemi Awolowo University / Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • Ulasi, Ifeoma I., College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
  • Gbadegesin, Rasheed A., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • Parekh, Rulan S., The Hospital For Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Adeyemo, Adebowale A., National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States
  • Salako, Babatunde L., College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Adu, Dwomoa, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
  • Ojo, Akinlolu O., University of Arizona Health Sciences, Tucson, Arizona, United States

Group or Team Name

  • H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network Investigators

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are also risk factors for initiation and progression of CKD. The epidemiology of CVD risk factors and their associations with CKD have not been defined in a well-characterized cohort of patients with CKD in sub-Saharan Africa which may differ from high income countries.


We studied 919 patients with CKD from diabetes, hypertension, sickle cell disease, HIV, and unknown causes compared with 3504 healthy participants with no CKD from the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network. We determined the prevalence of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidaemia in sub-Saharan African population, and their relationship with CKD risk. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to determine association between the risk factors and CKD.


The mean age was 45.7±15.5years and 59.4%% were females. Patients with CKD were older (48.9±15.8years) than the control participants (45.6±14.9years), p=0.001; they have lower BMI (25.3±5.4kg/m2 versus 26.4±6.1kg/m2, p=0.001), lower hemoglobin, (11.3±2.1g/dL versus 13.3±1.7g/dL, p=0.001) and higher Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (65.1±37.6mg/g versus 6.2±4.1mg/g, p=0.001). Compared with the control participants, patients with CKD have higher prevalence of hypertension (68.87% versus 31.44%, p=0.001); diabetes (28.61% versus 18.46%, p=0.001), dyslipidaemia (11.42% versus 5.96%, p=0.001); and smoking (7.39% versus 3.11%, p=0.001). Table 1 shows the odds of each CVD risk factor and having CKD.


Traditional CVD risk factors are prevalent and consistently associated with CKD especially hypertension in middle aged adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention and optimal treatment of these risk factors may reduce CKD progression in sub-Saharan Africa.

Table 1: Association of self-reported cardiovascular risk factors with CKD in Sub-Saharan Africa
CVD risk factorsUnadjusted Odd ratio
(95% CI)
*Adjusted Odd ratio
(95% CI)
P value
Hypertension4.74 (4.04-5.57)5.18 (4.34-6.19)0.001
Diabetes1.47 (1.44-2.02)1.47 (1.22-1.76)0.001
Dyslipidemia1.99 (1.55-2.54)2.12 (1.62-2.74)0.001
Smoking2.39 (1.74-3.25)1.51 (1.09-2.10)0.001
Age1.01 (1.01-1.02)1.01 (1.00-1.01)0.052

*Each CVD risk factor was adjusted for others


  • Other NIH Support