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Abstract: PO1774

Sex-Specific Associations Between Potassium Intake, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Outcomes in the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

Session Information

Category: Hypertension and CVD

  • 1401 Hypertension and CVD: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Prevention

Authors

  • Wouda, Rosa D., Amsterdam UMC Locatie AMC, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • Boekholdt, S.m., Amsterdam UMC Locatie AMC, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • Vogt, Liffert, Amsterdam UMC Locatie AMC, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
Background

High potassium intake is associated with lower blood pressure and lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Whether these associations differ between men and women and whether they depend on daily sodium intake is unknown.

Methods

We performed an analysis in 11,267 men and 13,696 women from the Epic-Norfolk cohort. Daily sodium and potassium consumption was estimated from sodium and potassium concentration in spot urine samples by using the Kawasaki formula. Linear and Cox regression were used to explore the association between potassium intake, systolic blood pressure and cardiovascular events (defined as hospitalization or death due to cardiovascular disease).

Results

After adjustment for cofounders, interaction between potassium intake and sex was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p=0.001) and cardiovascular events (p=0.035). In women, but not in men, the inverse slope between potassium intake and systolic blood pressure was steeper in those within the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile of sodium intake (p<0.001 for interaction). In women within the highest quintile of sodium intake, every 1-gram increase in potassium intake was associated with a 2.9 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure. These associations were paralleled with lower hazards of cardiovascular disease in women (highest vs. lowest potassium intake tertile: HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.93-0.94). Conversely, in men, the inverse association between potassium intake and cardiovascular disease was not statistically significant (highest vs. lowest potassium intake tertile: HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-1.01).

Conclusion

We demonstrate that the association between potassium intake and both systolic blood pressure and cardiovascular disease is sex-specific. Our data suggests that particularly women may benefit most from a high potassium intake.

Figure 1 Interaction between potassium intake and sodium intake for the outcome systolic BP in men and women