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Kidney Week

Abstract: PO1019

Functioning Tailor-Made 3D-Printed Vascular Graft for Hemodialysis: A Proof-of-Concept In Vivo Study

Session Information

Category: Dialysis

  • 703 Dialysis: Vascular Access


  • Yang, David Chih-Yu, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
  • Tarng, Der-Cherng, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

The two ends of arteriovenous graft (AVG) are anastomosed to the upper limb vessels by surgery for hemodialysis therapy. However, the size of upper limb vessels varies to a large extent among different individuals. With advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, it is now possible to realize tailor-made AVG for personalized surgery. In this study, we aim to investigate the function of 3D-printed AVGs in vivo.


The computed tomography angiographic scan of the rabbit neck was performed before the surgery. According to the shape and size of neck vessels, an H-shape AVG was produced by the 3D printer and then sterilized. The 3D-printed AVG was trimmed and inserted in the rabbit’s common carotid artery and common jugular vein.


The tailor-made 3D-printed AVGs can be implanted in the rabbit’s neck vessels with ease and function in vivo. The surgical procedure was quick, and no suture was required. The blood loss was minimal, and no hematoma was noted at least one week after the surgery. The blood flow velocity within the implanted AVG was 14.9 ± 3.7 cm/sec.


Through the 3D printing technology, the AVG can be tailored to fit the specific vessel size. This kind of 3D-printed AVG is functioning in vivo, and our results realize personalized vascular implants. Further studies conducted in large animal models are warranted to validate our promising results.

Graphical Abstract. The schematic diagram of the three-dimensional (3D)-printed vascular graft implantation. After surgically free of the rabbit’s common carotid artery and common jugular vein, the 3D-printed vascular graft was trimmed and inserted into the blood vessels. The blood recirculates at once after releasing the vascular clamps.


  • Government Support – Non-U.S.