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Kidney Week

Abstract: TH-PO1050

Aversive Response Against High Salt Taste Is Disturbed in CKD Patients

Session Information

Category: CKD (Non-Dialysis)

  • 2302 CKD (Non-Dialysis): Clinical, Outcomes, and Trials

Authors

  • Okuno, Natsuko, Department of Nephrology, Graduate school of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
  • Kohama, Yusuke, House Foods Group Inc., Tokyo, Japan
  • Tamagaki, Keiichi, Department of Nephrology, Graduate school of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
  • Taguchi, Hiromu, House Foods Group Inc., Tokyo, Japan
  • Hirao, Takashi, House Foods Group Inc., Tokyo, Japan
  • Kusaba, Tetsuro, Department of Nephrology, Graduate school of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
Background

Reducing salt intake is a vital lifestyle modification in the management of hypertension. Initiatives aimed at reducing salt intake are based on the premise that we prefer salt, but we exhibit an aversive response against high salt taste. It is postulated that salt intake behavior is influenced by the balance between attraction to low salt taste and aversion to high salt taste. However, aversion to high salt has not been quantitively investigated in both healthy individuals and CKD patients.

Methods

As a pilot study, we performed a salt taste test on 125 healthy volunteers, wherein we devised nine different concentrations of NaCl (ranging from 0.3% to 20%). The participants placed a filter paper containing each solution on their tongues, and we assessed the recognition threshold as a parameter of taste accuracy, and "minimum aversion level" for the concentration at which the initial dislike sensation emerged. Based on the results of the pilot study, a definition of "lack of salt taste aversion" was determined, and the same test was conducted on 70 CKD patients.

Results

In the pilot taste test conducted on 125 healthy subjects, the number of subjects exhibiting an aversive reaction increased with higher salt concentrations. The threshold for normal taste perception was arbitrarily defined as 10% NaCl, with approximately half (47.2%) of the healthy subjects displaying an aversive reaction.
Among the 70 CKD patients, only 30% could recognize salt taste at 0.6% NaCl, which is considered normal, and 10% of CKD patients could not recognize salt taste even at the highest concentration of 20% NaCl, suggesting that taste perception is significantly impaired in CKD patients. Age and the use of dentures were factors associated with lower taste perception thresholds in patients. A high proportion (84%) of CKD patients exhibited decreased aversive reactions to high salt taste, with gender and denture usage being associated factors.

Conclusion

This study confirmed the anticipated aversive response to high salt taste in humans and demonstrated its attenuation in CKD patients, implying that CKD patients have reduced resistance to high salt intake. When implementing salt reduction strategies in clinical practice, it is crucial to pay attention to the decrease in aversive response to high salt taste as well as the increase in salt preference.

Funding

  • Commercial Support – House Foods Group Inc.