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Abstract: SA-PO728

The Prevalence of Hyponatremia in the United States

Session Information

Category: Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Disorders

  • 1102 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders: Clinical

Authors

  • Woolley, David A., University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States
  • Singh, Bhupinder, Nephcentric LLC, Phoenix, Arizona, United States
Background

Hyponatremia (serum sodium [corrected for hyperglycemia] < 135 mmol/L) is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Hyponatremia prevalence has been estimated in higher risk settings (e.g. 15% - 30% in hospitalized patients) using more recent data, while data regarding overall prevalence date back to surveys conducted prior to 2005. Using data from a nationally representative sample, we estimate the overall prevalence of hyponatremia in the US adult population using pooled data from population-based cross-section samples from 1999 – 2020, providing an analytic sample nearly 4-fold larger than used in previous estimates.

Methods

NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) produces national estimates that are representative of the total noninstitutionalized civilian US population. Typically conducted every 2 years, each cycle provides a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of approximately 10,000 persons, more than half of whom are adults providing serum samples. Multiple cycles can be combined to provide estimates with even greater precision. This study used pooled NHANES data from 1999 – 2020 (n = 55,731) to estimate the overall prevalence of hyponatremia across the general US adult population, as well as by gender and age subgroups. Observed data were used in the primary analyses, with missing data imputed in secondary analyses.

Results

Overall prevalence of hyponatremia in US adults is estimated to be 2.05%. As shown in the table, prevalence is higher in women (p < 0.001) and increases with age (p < 0.001). Based on US census data, it is estimated that in 2022, 5,944,024 US adults had hyponatremia. Secondary analyses based on imputed data showed very similar results.

Conclusion

Approximately 6 million US adults had hyponatremia in 2022, a prevalence of about 2%. Prevalence was higher in women and increased with age. As the population ages, the prevalence of hyponatremia in the US will likely increase.

Prevalence of Hyponatremia by Age and Gender
Age Group18 - 2930 - 3940 - 4950 - 5960 - 6970 - 7980 +Total
Female2.24%2.35%2.45%2.16%2.59%4.60%6.10%2.53%
Male0.59%1.01%1.61%2.01%2.35%2.90%5.12%1.55%
Total1.41%1.69%2.04%2.09%2.48%3.85%5.72%2.05%

pooled NHANES data from 1999 - 2020

Funding

  • Commercial Support – NephCentric