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Abstract: TH-PO383

Urinary Response to Consumption of Plant-Based Meat Alternatives: Secondary Analysis of the SWAP-MEAT Trial

Session Information

Category: Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Disorders

  • 1102 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders: Clinical

Authors

  • Ward, Catherine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States
  • Landry, Matthew James, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States
  • Raphael, Kalani L., University of Utah Health, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Gardner, Christopher D., Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States
  • Pao, Alan C., Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States
Background

Consumption of excess animal meat can exacerbate kidney disorders such as urinary stone disease and chronic kidney disease. Plant-based meat alternatives, “plant-meat”, have entered the commercial market. It is not known whether plant-meat confers the same health benefits as whole vegetables because plant-meat is highly processed food. We hypothesized that consumption of plant-meat reduces dietary load of acid, phosphorus, and nitrogen compared with consumption of animal-meat.

Methods

SWAP-MEAT was a randomized crossover trial in which participants consumed ≥2 servings/day of either plant-meat or animal-meat for 8 weeks each, while keeping all other foods and beverages similar. We analyzed fasting spot urine samples from participants at baseline and after each phase of plant-meat or animal-meat. We used a linear mixed-effects model to investigate if the change in urine indices was different between baseline and at the end of each phase, adjusting for urine creatinine concentration, the fixed effect of diet order, phase, and the random effect of correlated observations. Primary outcomes included differences between baseline and after plant-meat or animal-meat phase for urine sulfate, urine ammonium, urine phosphorus, urine urea nitrogen, and urine pH.

Results

Differences in mean concentration for urine sulfate, urine ammonium, urine phosphorus, and urine urea nitrogen were significantly lower after plant-meat compared with animal-meat. Difference in mean urine pH was significantly higher after plant-meat compared with animal-meat.

Conclusion

Consumption of plant-meat was associated with lower dietary load of acid, phosphorus, and nitrogen compared with consumption of animal-meat. Plant-based meat products could support persons who wish to reduce dietary acid load in a manner that does not increase dietary phosphorus or nitrogen, which may benefit patients with urinary stone disease or chronic kidney disease.

Mixed Effects Linear Regression Model: adjusted for urine creatinine (mg/dL)
Plant-meatEstimate95% Confidence Interval
Urine sulfate (mEq/L)-6.68-10.96, -2.4
Urine ammonium (mmol/L)-4.15-8.2, -0.07
Urine phosphorus (mg/dL)-9.01-17.5, -0.5
Urine urea nitrogen (mg/dL)-124.8-226.9, -22.6
Urine pH+0.32+0.18, +0.46

Reference: Animal-meat

Funding

  • NIDDK Support