ASN's Mission

To create a world without kidney diseases, the ASN Alliance for Kidney Health elevates care by educating and informing, driving breakthroughs and innovation, and advocating for policies that create transformative changes in kidney medicine throughout the world.

learn more

Contact ASN

1401 H St, NW, Ste 900, Washington, DC 20005


The Latest on X

Kidney Week

Please note that you are viewing an archived section from 2023 and some content may be unavailable. To unlock all content for 2023, please visit the archives.

Abstract: TH-PO229

The Association Between Food Insecurity and Hypertension in the Context of CKD: Reviewing the Literature

Session Information

Category: Hypertension and CVD

  • 1602 Hypertension and CVD: Clinical


  • Ukrainetz, Judy A., University of Alberta, Dept. Medicine, Div. Nephrology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • Braam, Branko, University of Alberta, Dept. Medicine, Div. Nephrology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Hypertension (HTN) and dietary choices are closely related. HTN is a leading cause of CKD and a poor diet contributes to about 80% of HTN. Food insecurity (FI) is defined as the lack of secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development of an active and healthy life and is prevalent and determines dietary choices. The prevalence of FI for adults has increased by 84% in the last 20 years and the mortality rate from CKD has also increased by over 40% in the same time frame making this a relevant issue to address. We wanted to explore the relationship between the modifiable risk factors of FI and HTN in the context of CKD.


A narrative review was performed using a systematic search in PubMed. Search terms were food insecurity, chronic disease, hypertension, social determinants of health and for years 2004-2023. After manual appraisal of each study, findings were narrowed down to exclude other literature or systematic reviews. Data synthesis was conducted according to a thematic synthesis approach.


Out of a total of 147 articles, 26 studies were included in the final review. The thematic synthesis enabled the construction of 4 themes: “Low income negatively affects diet and is associated with food insecurity and HTN”; “Education and health literacy affect diet and the correlation between food insecurity and HTN”; “Access to healthy food feeds into the association between food insecurity and HTN”; and “Poor diet aggravates other adverse health conditions and is correlated to food insecurity and HTN”.


FI is correlated to poor nutrition and HTN. Both FI and HTN together are an increasing global public health concern. The literature indicated how diet and health behavior are modifiable by addressing low income, limited access to healthy food and poor education thereby making it relevant to mitigate the negative dietary consequences of food insecurity on HTN and cardiovascular disease at a local and global scale. This is a threat also for the development of CKD.

Relevance Statement: Globally, HTN is a leading non-communicable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is one of the leading causes of CKD. FI is associated with HTN, and these global health threats beg for urgent attention to improve health outcomes on a worldwide scale.